11 Citations (Scopus)


The development of information technology has brought an avoidable consequence for data security. It is because data, specifically those are private or confidential, are vulnerable to illegal access. Therefore, a protection method, such as data hiding, is essential. This protection is done by inserting a secret message (payload) into a medium (cover). One of the media commonly used in this method is audio, where a payload is embedded in audio samples. Nevertheless, this common technique has several disadvantages, including the relatively small insertion space and the significant dissimilarity between stego-audio and its original audio cover. Moreover, there is a risk of payload that cannot be returned to the original file. To overcome these problems, we propose to employ the fuzzification stage in the fuzzy logic algorithm that the samples are grouped into five categories. The binary payload is evenly distributed to the available sample space, which previously was calculated by considering the total payload and the number of interpolated samples. In the case that space is not enough to carry the payload, it is dynamically increased. The results show an increase of about 48% in stego audio quality measured by the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR). Moreover, the method is reversible, and the size of the sample space can be controlled to specific values.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)327-336
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Intelligent Engineering and Systems
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020


  • Audio steganography
  • Cybercrime
  • Data hiding
  • Fuzzy logic
  • Network security


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