Valorization of Banana Bunch Waste as a Feedstock via Hydrothermal Carbonization for Energy Purposes

Sani Maulana Sulaiman*, Gunawan Nugroho, Hendri Maja Saputra, Djaenudin, Dani Permana, Novi Fitria, Herlian Eriska Putra

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


In this article, the potential use of banana bunch waste (BBW) as a source of bioenergy through hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was investigated. BBW, a byproduct of banana production, is difficult to use as a fuel due to its low density and carbon ratio. However, its high lignocellulose content indicates its potential as a bioenergy source. To determine the optimal HTC conditions, an experiment was conducted using temperature, water to feedstock ratio, and processing time, with the RSM Box-Behnken method used to produce 15 trial formulations. Energy value and mass yield data were collected to determine the optimal values for both. The main parameter affecting energy yield was found to be the water to feedstock ratio, and the optimal conditions were determined to be a temperature of 180 oC, a water to feedstock ratio of 1.5:1, and a processing time of 15 minutes. The highest energy yield of 99.7% was observed under these conditions, while the lowest mass yield of 25.30% was observed at a temperature of 200°C with a water ratio of 2 and a time of 15 minutes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-74
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Ecological Engineering
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Hydrothermal carbonization
  • Response Surface Methodology
  • banana bunch waste


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