ZnO nanoflowers-based photoanodes: Aqueous chemical synthesis, microstructure and optical properties

Ruri Agung Wahyuono, Christa Schmidt, Andrea Dellith, Jan Dellith, Martin Schulz, Martin Seyring, Markus Rettenmayr, Jonathan Plentz, Benjamin Dietzek*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


We have developed an efficient, low temperature, synthetic route for ZnO nanoflowers (NFs) as photoanode material. This alternative route yields small flowerlike nanostructures, built from densely self-assembled tip-ended rod structures. The obtained ZnO NFs possess a large bandgap of 3.27 - 3.39 eV, enabling the generation of an average open current voltage of 0.56 V. Additionally, they show a high internal light harvesting of 14.6·10-7A·mol-1. The growth mechanism and self-assembly of ZnO NFs were studied in detail by joint spectroscopic-TEM investigations. It is shown that the ZnO crystallite size increases with increasing annealing temperatures and that the stress and the improved crystallinity are induced by annealing and reduce the lattice strain and the dislocation density. The bandgaps of ZnO are affected by the lattice strain revealing an optimal region of lattice strain to gain high bandgap energies. The properties of the synthesized ZnO NFs are compared with other morphologies, i.e. ZnO spherical aggregates (SPs) and ZnO nanorods (NRs), and are tested as electrode materials in dye-sensitized solar cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-169
Number of pages12
JournalOpen Chemistry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Bandgap
  • Dye-sensitized solar cell
  • Light harvesting
  • Microstructures
  • ZnO nanoflowers


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